Census for England, Wales and Scotland: missing pieces

For a variety of reasons the census returns for England & Wales 1841-1911 and the census returns for Scotland 1841-1901 are incomplete and have pieces missing. The later the census was taken, the more information is available for us to explore. For instance, the 1841 census is missing parishes from eleven counties in England, but the 1891 census is only missing some house numbers. Our collection of the 1911 census is complete for England and Wales, but no transcripts or images are available for this year for Scotland.

If you are having trouble finding your ancestor we recommend that you consult these lists to find if your relative's parish is missing from the official records.

1841 England, Wales & Scotland Census

The 1841 England, Wales & Scotland Census is the first modern UK census and the earliest census that has survived in its entirety. A small number of permanent gaps exist in the 1841 census. In the enumeration books the following parishes and hamlets are permanently missing from these piece numbers. Some of these parishes and hamlets represent the entirety of the piece, while others are just portions of a piece.

England

PieceCountyParish or hamlet
89CheshireParish: Malpas (part)
  Agden
  Bickerton
  Bickley
  Bradley
  Broxton
  Bulkeley Chidlow
  Cholmondley
  Chorlton
  Cuddington
  Duckington
  Edge Egerton
  Hampton
  Larkton
  Macefen
  Malpas
  Newton-juxta-Malpas
  Oldcastle
  Overton
  Stockton
  Tushingham
  Wichaugh
  Wigland
   
  Parish: Shocklach
  Caldecott
  Church Shocklach
  Oviatt Shocklach
   
  Parish: Threapwood
192DerbyshireParish: Walton-upon-Trent
404SouthampshireParish: Winnall
465KentParish: Bishopsbourne
467KentParish: Herne Bay
469 KentParish: Reculver
470KentParish: Sturry
  Parish: Swalecliffe
  Parish: Westbere
  Parish: Seasalter Liberty
  Parish: Whitstable
  Harwich
471KentParish: Ashford (part)
475KentParish: Smarden
668MiddlesexParish: St Luke
  West Finsbury
  Golden-Lane
  Old Street
  Whitecross-Street
680MiddlesexParish: Paddington
690MiddlesexParish: Kensington (part)
  Brompton
  Kensall Green (part)
797NorthamptonshireParish: Blatherwycke
  Parish: Bulwick
  Parish: Bulwick Short Leys
  Parish: Deene
  Deenethorpe
  Parish: Great Weldon
  Little Weldon
  Parish: Weedon-Beck
798NorthamptonshireParish: Haselbeech
809Northamptonshire 
864Piece number not used 
890OxfordshireParish: Yarnton or Yarington
942SomersetParish: Mells
1074SurreyParish: Walton-upon-Thames
  Hersham
  Parish: Weybridge
1075SurreyParish: Malden
1172WiltshireParish: Hardenhuish
1174WiltshireParish: Downton
  Charlton
  Church
  Downton
  East Downton
  Hamptworth
  Wick & Walton
  Witherington
  Parish: No-Man"s Land
1176WiltshireParish: Patney
1184WiltshireParish: Bishop’s Cannings
  Bourton & Easton
  Chittoe
  Coase
  Horton
  St James or Southbroom
  Parish: West or Bishop’s Lavington
  Fiddington
  Littleton Pannell
1186WiltshireParish: Allcannings
  Allington
  Etchilhampton
  Fullaway or Fullway 
  Parish: Alton-Barnes
  Parish: Beeching-Stoke
  Parish: Churton or Cherrington
  Conock
  Parish: East or Market Lavington
  Easterton
  Parish: Marden
  Parish: St Bernard Stanton
  Parish: Urchfont or Erchfont
  Eastcott
  Lydeway
  Stert
  Wedhampton
1286 Yorkshire Wapentake: Claro (Lower Division)Parish: Ripon (part)
  Bewerley
  Greenhow Hill (part)
  Dacre
  Hayshaw

Wales

PieceCountyParish or hamlet
1369BreconshireParish: Llanhamlach (Lower Division)
  Llecfaen (Upper Division)
  Parish: Vainor
  Coed-y-Cymmar
  Dyffrin
  Gelli
1404DenbighshireParish: Clocaenog
  Isa
  Ucha
  Parish: Derwen
  Derwen-Dyfanedd
  Derwen-Ysgeifiog
  Parish: Llanelidan
  Bryncume
  Garthyneuvedd
  Nantclwyd
  Trewyn-Bodlowydd
  Parish: Llanfair-Dyffrin-Clwyd
  Derwen-Ilanerch
  Euarth
  Faynol
  Garthgynan
1405DenbighshireParish: Llanaron
  Alltgymbyd
  Benhadlen
  Bodidris & Bodidris Truam
  Bodigre"r-Abbot Bodigre"r-Yarll
  Creiogiog-Is-Glan
  Creigiog-Uwch-Glan
  Chwyleiriog
  Cyfnant Erryrys
  Gelligynnan
  Gwaenyffymon
  Llan
1408FlintshireParish: Bangor (part)
  Bangor
  Parish: Erbistock
  Parish: Hope or Estyn
  Caergwyrle
  Cymmau
  Estyn
  Hope Owen Rhanberfedd
  Shordley
  Isaf Uwch-y-Mynydd
  Uchaf Uwch-y-Mynydd
  Parish: Llanarmon (part)
  Bodidris
  Parish: Threapwood (part)
  Parish: Worthenbury
  Parish: Wrexham (part)
  Abenbury Fechan
  Parish: Malpas (part)
  Iscoyd
1409FlintshireParish: Gresford (part)
  Merford & Hoseley
1410FlintshireParish: Mold
  Arddynwent
  Argoed
  Bistree
  Broncoed Gwernafield
  Gwsaney
  Hartsheath
  Hendrebiffa
  Leeswood Llwynegrin
  Mold
  Nerquis
  Tryddyn
   
  Hamlets: Buckley (part)Gwernymynnd
   
  Waenrhwyddfyd
  Pantymwyn Llong
  Pontblyddyn
  Rhydgoley
  Pentre
1415GlamorganshireParish: Merthyr-Tydfil
  Forest
  Garth Gelli-deg
  Heolwermood
  Taff & Cynon
1416GlamorganshireParish: Cowbridge
  Parish:Llan-blethian
  Aberthin
  Treinghill
1423GlamorganshireParish: St Bride Major
  St Bride
  Lampha (part)

Scotland

CountyParish or hamlet
AyrshireAuchinleck
FifeAbdie
 Auchtermuchty
 Balmerino
 Ceres
 Collessie
 Creich
 Cults
 Cupar
 Dairsie
 Dunbog
 Kinghorn
 Kinglassie
 Kirkcaldy and Leslie
 Parts of Abernethy
 Arngask
 Burntisland and Kennoway
 Kennoway

1851 England, Wales & Scotland Census

The 1851 England, Wales & Scotland Census was taken on 30 March and gave the total population as 20,997,889. A small number of permanent gaps exist in the 1851 census. In the enumeration books the following parishes and hamlets are permanently missing from these piece numbers. Some of these parishes and hamlets represent the entirety of the piece, while others are just portions of a piece.

PieceCountyParish
1762Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Parish: Ashley-cum-Silverley
  Burwell
  Exning
  Landwade
  Newmarket
  Reach
  Snailwell
  St Mary
  Swaffham Prior
1763Cambridgeshire and SuffolkParish: Dalham
  Dunstall-Green
  Gazeley
  Higham Green
  Kennett
  Lidgate
  Moulton
  Ousden
  Southwell Park
1785EssexParish: Aythorp-Roothing
  Bardfield-Saling
  Barnston
  Broxted
  Chickney
  Easton Lodge
  Felstead
  Great Bardfield
  Great Canfield
  Great Dunmow
  Great Easton
  Hatfield-Broad-Oak or Hatfield Regis
  High Easter
  High Roothing
  Leaden-Roothing
  Lindsell
  Little Bardfield
  Little Canfield
  Little Easton
  Little Dunmow
  Margaret Roothing
  Morrell-Roothing
  Stebbing
  Takeley
  Thaxted
  Tilty
  White Roothing
1852DorsetParish: Bagbere
  Bellchalwell
  Child Okeford
  Fifehead-Neville
  Hammoon
  Haselbury-Bryan
  Hinton St Mary
  Ibberton
  Manston
  Newton
  Okeford-Fitzpaine
  Shillingstone or Shilling-Okeford
  Stoke-Wake
  Sturminster-Newton-Castle
  Woolland

In addition, the census returns of the following localities have been damaged by water during storage. Most of the damaged pieces are in the area of Manchester.


PieceCountyParish
2332YorkshireParish: Broadroyd Head
  Carlton
  Carr Green
  Cudworth with High & Low Cudworth
  Darton
  Darton Lane Head
  Darton with Blacker
  Mapplewell
  Notton
  Roystone
  Staincross & Swallow Hill
  Woolley
2219LancashireParish: Manchester
  Ardwick
  Birth in Rusholme
  Burnage
  Chorlton-dum-Hardy
  Didsbury
  Gorton
  Levenshulme
  Openshaw
  Rusholme
  Withington
2220LancashireParish: Manchester
  Moss-side
  Hulme
2222/1LancashireParish: Eccles
  Pendleton
2222/2LancashireParish: Eccles
  Pendleton
2222/3LancashireParish: Manchester
  Broughton-with Kersall
2223LancashireParish: Manchester
  Salford
2224LancashireParish: Manchester
  Salford
2225LancashireParish: Manchester
2226LancashireParish: Manchester
2227LancashireParish: Manchester
2228LancashireParish: Manchester
2229LancashireParish: Manchester
2230LancashireParish: Manchester
2231LancashireParish: Manchester
  Bradford
  Beswick
  Newton with Culcheth & Kirkmanshulme
2232LancashireParish: Manchester
  Alt
  Alt-Edge
  Alt-Hill
  Ashton-under-Lyne
  Blackley
  Cheetham
  Crumpsall
  Failsworth
  Great Heaton
  Harpurhey
  Knott Lanes with Lees
  Knott Lanes & Wood Park
  Little Heaton
  Moston
  Prestwich
  Taunton
2233LancashireParish: Ashton-under-Lyne
  Ashton Town
2240LancashireParish: Prestwich
  Oldham (St Mary"s, St Peter"s, Wernet, and Westwood Wards)

1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census

The 1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census was taken on the night of 7 April 1861 and gave the total population as 23,085,579. There are a number of enumeration books missing, or parts of enumeration books (usually missing start or finish), from the 1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census. Below is a list of the books affected that we know of, both those missing in their entirety (M) and those which are incomplete (I) in the National Archives.

PieceCountyCity or boroughParishWardM/I
145MiddlesexIslingtonIslington East (2)IslingtonM
217MiddlesexWest LondonWest London North (1)St Bartholomew the LessI
219MiddlesexWest LondonWest London South (2)Barnard"s InnM
220MiddlesexLondon CityLondon City SW (1)St Augustine Watling StreetI
229MiddlesexLondon CityLondon City NE (5)St Christopher le StockI
407KentGreenwichWoolwich Arsenal (6)WoolwichM
473KentNorth AylesfordNorthfleet (1)IfieldI
485KentMallingEast Peckham (2)Wateringbury: Lily HoeI
499KentMaidstoneLoose (3)BarmingI
499KentMaidstoneLoose (3)West BarmingI
541KentEastryWingham (2)GoodnestoneI
565SussexBattleBattle (3)PenhurstI
601SussexBrightonThe Palace (3)BrightonM
690HampshireWinchesterThe Worthys (2)LainstonI
758BerkshireWindsorEgham (1)Thorpe (Surrey)I
837HertfordshireHemel HempsteadKings Langley (1)FlaundenI
863BuckinghamshireWycombePrinces Risborough (5)IllmireI
903OxfordshireWoodstockWoodstock (2)Wootton M
    Stonesfield  
    Combe  
    Woodstock  
    Blenheim  
    Bladon  
    Hensington  
    Begbroke  
    Shipton on Cherwell  
    Hampton-Gay  
    Hampton-Poyle  
    Kidlington  
    Gosford  
    Thrup  
    Water-Eaton  
    Woolvercot  
    Yarnton  
    Cassington  
    Worton 
952NorthamptonshireWellingboroughHigham Ferrers (2)IrchesterI
952NorthamptonshireWellingboroughHigham Ferrers (2)IrthlingboroughI
1039CambridgeshireElyEly (3)Ely Trinity M
    Ely College  
    Ely St Mary  
    Stuntney  
    Chettisham 
1047CambridgeshireWisbechLeverington (1)Tydd St GilesI
1047CambridgeshireWisbechLeverington (1)Leverington: Parson DroveI
1079EssexChelmsfordWidfordMoulshamM
1194NorfolkYarmouthYarmouth Northern (2)Great Yarmouth: Cobham IslandI
1234NorfolkDepwadeForncett (4)Great Moulton M
    Aslacton  
    Forncett St Peter  
    Forncett St Mary  
    Hapton  
    Ashwellthorpe  
    Fundenhall  
    Tacolnestone  
    Bunwell  
    Carleton-Rode  
    Tibenham 
1984StaffordshireWolverhamptonTettenhall (1)Pattingham: Rudge (Shropshire)I
2211WarwickshireRugbyRugby (1)Newbold-upon-Avon: Little Lawford I
    Long Lawford 
2211WarwickshireRugbyRugby (1)Monks Kirby: EasenhallI
2247LeicestershireLutterworthLutterworth (1)Claybrooke: Wigston ParvaI
2365LincolnshireHorncastleWragby (1)HattonI
2365LincolnshireHorncastleWragby (1)Baumber a.k.a. BamburghI
2365LincolnshireHorncastleWragby (1)GautbyI
2365LincolnshireHorncastleWragby (1)WaddingworthI
2625CheshireGreat BoughtonChester Castle (2)Chester St John the BaptistI
3278West YorkshireHalifaxHalifax (4)HalifaxI
3388West YorkshireLeedsWest Leeds (3)Leeds NW WardM
3652North YorkshireGuisboroughMarske (2)Marske: RedcarI
3735DurhamDurhamLanchester (2)Brancepeth: Hedley HopeI
3855NorthumberlandCastle WardStamfordham (2)Newburn: Black Callerton I
    Butterlaw  
    East & West Whorlton  
    Newbiggin 
    East & West Denton  
    Newburn Hall  
    Sugley 
3913CumberlandCarlisleWetheral (1) I
3984MonmouthshireMonmouthDingestow (2)Garway (Herefordshire)I
3984MonmouthshireMonmouthDingestow (2)SkenfrethI
4010MonmouthshirePontypoolPontypool (1)MamhiladI
4013MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)GoldcliffI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)LlangattockI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)Kemeys InferiorI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)TredunnockI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)LlanhennockI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)LlanmartinI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)Magor: RedwickI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)Witson a.k.a WhitsonI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)NashI
4015MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)CaerleonM
4022MonmouthshireNewportNewport (2)St Woollos & NewportM
4024MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)Michaelstoneyvedw Llanvedw (Glamorganshire)I
4025MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)BettwsI
4025MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)MalpasI
4025MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)HenllisI
4025MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)RiscaI
4025MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)Llanvihangel LlantarnamI
4027MonmouthshireNewportMynyddyslwyn (4)Machen: Upper & Lower MachenI
    Rhydgwern (Glamorganshire) 
4041GlamorganshireCardiffSt Nicholas (3)Welsh St DonatsI
4077GlamorganshireBridgendBridgend (3)EwennyI
4077GlamorganshireBridgendBridgend (3)Merthyr MawrI
4078GlamorganshireBridgendBridgend (3)LalestonI
4079GlamorganshireBridgendBridgend (3)Tythegston: Lower TythegstonI
4131CarmarthenshireLlandilofawrLlandilo (4)Llandilofawr: Llandilo TownM
4132CarmarthenshireLlandilofawrLlandebie (5)LlandebieI
4133CarmarthenshireLlandilofawrLlandebie (5)LlandebieI
4137CarmarthenshireCarmarthenSt Clear"s (2)LaugharneM
4137CarmarthenshireCarmarthenSt Clear"s (2)LlansadurnenM
4137CarmarthenshireCarmarthenSt Clear"s (2)LlandawkeM
4137CarmarthenshireCarmarthenSt Clear"s (2)St Clear"sM
4138CarmarthenshireCarmarthenSt Clear\"s (2)LlangunnockI
4143CarmarthenshireCarmarthenConwil (4)LlanllawddogI
4143CarmarthenshireCarmarthenConwil (4)MerthyrI
4143CarmarthenshireCarmarthenConwil (4)AbernantI
4146PembrokeshireNarberthLlanboidy (1)LlanfalltegI
4149PembrokeshireNarberthNarberth (4)CrinowI
4149PembrokeshireNarberthNarberth (4)Cilymaenllwyd: Castle-Dyrran (Carmarthenshire)I
4154PembrokeshirePembrokeTenby (1)Caldy & St Margaret's IslandsI
4161PembrokeshireHaverfordwestMilford (1)St Bride'sI
4161PembrokeshireHaverfordwestMilford (1)HasguardI
4163PembrokeshireHaverfordwestHaverfordwest (2)Harroldston St IssellsI
4163PembrokeshireHaverfordwestHaverfordwest (2)Haverfordwest St ThomasI
4163PembrokeshireHaverfordwestHaverfordwest (2)Haverfordwest St MaryI
4164PembrokeshireHaverfordwestHaverfordwest (2)Haverfordwest St Mary: St Martin & PrendergastI
4165PembrokeshireHaverfordwestHaverfordwest (2)Haverfordwest St Mary: UzmastonI
4173CardiganshireCardiganNewport (1)Newport (Pembrokeshire)I
4174CardiganshireCardiganNewport (1)Nevern (Pembrokeshire)I
4178CardiganshireCardiganLlandygwydd (3)Llanfihangelpenbedw (Pembrokeshire)I
4184CardiganshireNewcastle EmlynLlandyssil (3)LlandyssilI
4185CardiganshireNewcastle EmlynLlandyssil (3)HenllanI
4187CardiganshireLampeterPencarreg (2)Pencarreg (Carmarthenshire)I
4187CardiganshireLampeterPencarreg (2)Llanycrwys (Carmarthenshire): Fforest I
    Mynachty 
4187CardiganshireLampeterPencarreg (2)CellanI
4187CardiganshireLampeterPencarreg (2)LlanfairclydogauI
4190CardiganshireAberayronLlandisilio (1)DihewidI
4196CardiganshireAberystwythAberystwyth (2)Aberystwyth M
    Llanbadarnfawr  
    Uchayndre  
    Issayndre  
    Upper & Lower Vainor  
    Broncastellan  
    Clarach 
4202CardiganshireTregaronLlangeitho (2)NantcwnlleI
4211BrecknockshireBrecknockBrecknock (3)Brecknock St David & Lower DivisionI
4225BrecknockshireHayHay (3)LlanigonI
    Glynfach 
4225BrecknockshireHayHay (3)HayI
4225BrecknockshireHayHay (3)Cusop (Herefordshire)I
4228RadnorshirePresteigneRadnor (2)Radnor I
    New Radnor  
    Upper Harpton 
4231RadnorshirePresteigneKington (3)Stanton-upon-Arrow (Herefordshire)I
4256MontgomeryshireMontgomeryChirbury (2)ChirburyI
4261MontgomeryshireLlanfyllinLlansaintffraid (2)Llansaintffraid: Pool I
    Deythur 
4262MontgomeryshireLlanfyllinLlansaintffraid (2)GuilsfieldI
4263MontgomeryshireLlanfyllinLlansaintffraid (2)GuilsfieldI
4263MontgomeryshireLlanfyllinLlansaintffraid (2)LlanfyllinI
4265MontgomeryshireLlanfyllinLlanrhaiade (3)Llanarmonmynyddmawr (Denbighshire)I
4266FlintshireHolywellWhitford (1)GwaenysgorI
4270FlintshireHolywellHolywell (2)HolywellI
4272FlintshireHolywellFlint (3)Northop I
    Caerfallwch  
    Golftyn  
    Wepre  
    Leadbrook Major & Minor  
    Kelsterton  
    Soughton & Cunnah's Quay 
4274FlintshireHolywellMold (4)Cilcen I
    Rhesycae  
    Cefyn  
    Llan a.k.a. Tre-Llan 
    Llysdanhunedd  
    Llysycoed 
    Maesygroes  
    Mechlas  
    Trellynian 
4276FlintshireHolywellMold (4)Mold I
    Leeswood  
    Gwernafield  
    Arddynwent  
    Nerquis  
    Gwsaney  
    Hartsheath  
    Hendrebiffa 
4280DenbighshireWrexhamRuabon (3)ErbistockI
4290DenbighshireRuthinRuthin (2)EfenechtydI
4291DenbighshireRuthinLlanelidan (3)Llanfairdyffrynclwyd M
    Llanelidan  
    Derwen 
4295DenbighshireSt AsaphSt Asaph (1)Bodfary (Flintshire)I
4295DenbighshireSt AsaphSt Asaph (1)Dymeirchion (Flintshire)I
4295DenbighshireSt AsaphSt Asaph (1)Dyserth (Flintshire)I
4297DenbighshireSt AsaphSt Asaph (1)MeriadogI
4298DenbighshireSt AsaphAbergele (2)St GeorgeI
4299DenbighshireSt AsaphAbergele (2)LlanddulasI
4299DenbighshireSt AsaphAbergele (2)Bettwsynrhos a.k.a. BettwsabergeleI
4301DenbighshireSt AsaphDenbigh (3)LlanefyddI
4301DenbighshireSt AsaphDenbigh (3)Henllan: Trefrant I
    Bylchan 
4309DenbighshireLlanrwstLlanrwst (1)LlanrwstI
4314MerionethshireBalaBala (1)LlangowerI
4319MerionethshireDolgellyBarmouth (2)LlanfachrethI
4319MerionethshireDolgellyBarmouth (2)LlanelltydI
4330CarnarvonshirePwllheliPwllheli (2)PenrhosI
4330CarnarvonshirePwllheliPwllheli (2)LlanorI
4330CarnarvonshirePwllheliPwllheli (2)Denio I
    Pwllheli 
4344CarnarvonshireCarnarvonCarnarvon (3)Carnarvon M
    Llanbeblig  
    Llanfaglan 
4389Islands in the British Seas Le Marchant  M
   Great & Little Sark 

1871 England, Wales & Scotland Census

The 1871 England, Wales & Scotland Census was taken on the night of 2 April 1871 and gave the total population as 26,072,036. A small number of permanent gaps exist in the 1871 census.

England

PieceCountyParish
3278LeicestershireSt Margaret, Leicester
4213LancashirePreston
4729Yorkshireastoft and Haldenby

Wales

PieceCountyParish
5444Glamorgan Llangyfelach
  Penderry
  Llandilotalybont
5463 Glamorgan Porteynon
  Penrice
  Oxwich
  Nicholaston
  Penmaen
  Reynoldston
  Llandewy
  Knelston
5590Breconshire Talgarth
  Grwyne-fawr
  Grwyne-fechan

1881 England, Wales & Scotland Census

The 1881 England, Wales & Scotland Census was taken on the night of 3 April 1881 and gave the total population as 29,707,207.

Piece number 693 is missing from the 1881 census: house numbers 17-22 Cunard Street, Camberwell, London.

Part of house number 16 could be missing too if the house contained more children, a boarder or a visitor.

1891 England, Wales & Scotland Census

When 1891 England, Wales & Scotland Census was taken on April 5th, the total population of England, Wales and Scotland was recorded as 33,015,701.

The only known missing pieces are the returns for Great White Lion Street, London. According to the enumerator's abstract page (RG 12/212, folio 168), there should be a total of 27 pages in the second book relating to enumeration district 4 of St Giles North sub-district. Pages 23-27, containing 140 persons, are missing and these would appear to have included Great White Lion Street.

1901 England, Wales & Scotland Census

The 1901 England, Wales & Scotland Census was taken on 31 March and gave the total population as 36,967,126.

The village of Deal in Kent is missing in its entirety from the 1901 census. There are no known copies available.

1911 Census For England & Wales

The 1911 Census For England & Wales is available in full, with the original household pages and summary books available to view. There are 36 million records for those who were living in England and Wales on 2 April 1911.

There are no transcripts or images available for Scotland.